Credit is the last hope left to those faced with absolute poverty. The right to credit should be recognized as a fundamental human right.


#FinancialInclusion  #Microfinance

PROBLEM

 According to the World Bank, more than 50% of adults in the poorest households are unbanked.  More than 200 million formal and informal micro, small and medium-sized enterprises in emerging economies lack adequate financing to thrive and grow.  MSMEs cite a lack of collateral and credit history, and business informality as main reasons for not having an account.

If you look at the world today, I would say probably two-thirds of the world population does not have access to financial services. But that’s the first thing that we should take care of. Money begets money. If you don’t have that, you wait around to be hired by somebody at the mercy of others. If you have that money in your hand, you desperately try to make the best use of it and move ahead. And that’s generating income for yourself.  All human beings are very creative, full of potential and energy.  (Muhammad Yunus, founder of the Grameen Bank)

 

BUSINESS MODELS

Microfinance

Banking service (mostly lending) provided to unemployed or low-income individuals or groups who otherwise have no other access to financial services.

Success stories

  • Grameen Bank (pioneer, 8.92 million borrowers in Bangladesh)
  • Grameen America – GAI (86,000 members in the US, mostly migrants)
  • M-Pesa (30 million users in 10 countries in Africa ; mobile-based financial services)

There are today thousands of institutions offering microfinance services, mostly in developing countries but also in countries such as the US.

Loans & Advisory for Farmers

Financial and advisory services to empower professional farmer organisations in developing countries and help them connect to the global market.

Success stories

Crowdfunding

Crowdfunding allows social enterprises or unprivileged people with projects to raise money from individuals. We can find 4 main types of ways individuals can crowdfund projects :
donations
reward based crowdfunding = donation with a reward
equity crowdfunding / impact investment = participation to the capital of a social enterprise
crowdlending / P2P lending = lending with interest

Success stories

  • Kiva (crowdlending, $2.5 million in loans each week, in 84 countries)
  • Babyloan (crowdlending, 19 millions euros lent so far)
  • Lendingclub (crowdlending, 2.5 million people in America)
  • Oiko Credit (crowdlending, 747 social enterprises funded in 71 countries)
  • Calveart Impact Capital (equity crowdfunding, $2 billion invested in high-impact enterprises in 100 countries)
  • Ecrowd! (equity crowdfunding, $4.3 million invested in impact projects)
  • RangDe (crowdlending, over 1,000 rural entrepreneurs from India)
  • Yinongdai (crowdlending, over 1,500 rural women in China reported in 2011)
  • StartSomeGood (rewards-based crowdfunding, 968 projects funded)
  • Lita.co (equity crowdfunding, 50 social enterprises funded, in France and in Belgium)
  • Fuel A Dream (reward-based crowdfunding, 150+ campaigns, India)

Credentials via Alternative Data

The use of unconventional data (social media, Android and behavioral data…) to provide credentials and instantly underwrite loans to customers who have little or no formal credit history.  These companies usually give a credit score based on these data, also called Social Credit Scores.

Success stories

  • Lenddo (5 million applicants in 15 countries)
  • Tala.co (1.3 million customers in Kenya, Tanzania, and the Philippines)
  • Hara (+10,000 farmers on the blockchain data-sharing network, Indonesia)

SOCIAL ENTERPRISES WITH THIS VISION & MODEL

Grameen Bank

Grameen Bank provides loans to the poorest of the poor in rural Bangladesh, with no requirement for collaterals and no interest. 97% of shares of Grameen Bank are owned by the borrowers themselves.
The main incentives for people to repay the loans are that groups of villagers borrow together and act as co-guarantors, and a recipient who repays her loan qualifies for another, larger one.

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Lenddo

Lenddo can predict an individul’s credit risk or “willingness to pay“ based on non-traditional data derived from an applicant’s social data, psychometric data and online behavior. The solution reduces the high cost of credit assessment and verification for lenders and help millions of applicants with little to no credit history gain access to credit.

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